Otto Von Bismarck, who became prime minister of Prussia inwas the key figure that organized the unification of the German states into one Germany. Evidently, he believed in German nationalism but also believed his state, Prussia, was the superior state in Germany. Bismarck put his plans into action by taking the German Confederation into war with Denmark over two Dutchies in
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesarwho referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germaniathus distinguishing it from Gaul Francewhich he had conquered. In the Late Middle Agesthe regional dukes, princes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors.
Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church afteras the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained as the Catholics.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War —which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from —, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction.
The German revolutions of —49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the Socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlingrew in power.
German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished. The new Reichstagan elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific. Germany was the dominant power on the continent.
Byits rapidly expanding industrial economy passed Britain's, allowing a naval race. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as areas given to re-established Poland and Alsace-Lorraine.
The German Revolution of —19 deposed the emperor and the various kings and princes, leading to the establishment of the Weimar Republican unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government.
The Nazi Party then began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hitler quickly established a totalitarian regime. Beginning in the late s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met.
First came the remilitarization of the Rhineland inthe annexing of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in although in Hitler annexed further territory of Czechoslovakia.
Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June Racism, especially antisemitismwas a central feature of the regime.
In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areasthe systematic genocide program known as The Holocaust killed six million Jews, as well as five million others including German dissidents, gipsies, disabled people, Poles, Romanies, Soviets Russian and non-Russianand others.
Inthe German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States had entered the warBritain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through —, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy Junethe German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, and the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany.
Millions of ethnic Germans were deported or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansionand became the dominant economy in Western Europe.
West Germany was rearmed in the s under the auspices of NATObut without access to nuclear weapons. In —, Germany was one of the founding countries of the eurozone. Germany remains one of the economic powerhouses of Europe, contributing about one quarter of the eurozone's annual gross domestic product.
In the early s, Germany played a critical role in trying to resolve the escalating euro crisis, especially with regard to Greece and other Southern European nations. In the middle of the decade, the country faced the European migrant crisisas the main receiver of asylum seekers from Syria and other troubled regions.Jan 30, · One major difference between the English and German Reformations was in how and why they were brought about.
The English Reformation was started when King Henry VIII ignored the Pope because he wanted to marry another woman, but the Pope said it would not be good or legitimate. Back to the list of leaders Otto von Bismarck (1 April – 30 July ) was a Prussian statesman and the first Chancellor of Germany.
Learn German online and find out about one of the most beautiful cities in Europe: Vienna, Austria. For each interactive German exercise there is a wordlist to help you out.
An alphabetical wordlist provides an overview of the vocabulary used in all exercises of the beginner's course. Early in , the world's scientific community discovered that German physicists had learned the secrets of splitting a uranium atom.
Fears soon spread over the possibility of Nazi scientists utilizing that energy to produce a bomb capable of unspeakable destruction. German civ paper #1.
2 pages. possible essay questions #2 University of Missouri German Civilization GERMAN - Spring German lesson alphabetnyc.com 3 pages. German lesson alphabetnyc.com University of Missouri German Civilization GERMAN - Spring Ultimately, the interview also highlighted the strategy some German politicians have told me they see as the most effective one against the AfD: to hold them to the same standards as other.